Provigil is the brand name for the drug, Provigil UK shipping. It is a drug that promotes wakefulness, and is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a safe alternative to typical stimulants. It is also helpful with the treatment of many other sleep related disorders. These include narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and daytime fatigue that is associated with sleep apnea. Provigil is sometimes prescribed for off-label purposes in the treatment of ADHD, certain mood disorders and as a cognitive enhancer or smart drug. Even though there has been extensive research into the interaction of Modafinil with numerous neurotransmitter systems, the precise mechanisms of action of the drug remain partially unclear. That being said, we do have a good understanding of how Buy Modafinil works in general.
How does Provigil work?
Provigil helps to elevate levels of hypothalamic histamine. Researchers found this to be a wakefulness-promoting agent, compared to the other amphetamine type stimulants on the market.
Provigil has the ability to inhibit many of the actions of the dopamine transporter. This leads to a boost in extracellular, and thus, synaptic concentrations of dopamine. Another target of studies has been the locus of the monoamine action of Provigil. This is in hopes of identifying the effects of the drug on dopamine in both the nucleus accumbens and striatum. Also, the effects of noradrenaline in the hypothalamus and ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, as well as serotonin in the frontal cortex and amygdala.
One of the considered mechanisms of action involved orexins, which are brain peptides and also known as hypocretins. Orexin neurons can be found within the hypothalamus, but also projects to several different parts of the brain, including many areas that can regulate wakefulness in the body.
Activating these neurons will help to increase the dopamine and norepinephrine levels in those areas, and increases histamine levels in the histaminergic tuberomammillary neurons. Studies involving rats have shown that Provigil increases the histamine release levels in the brain, which can be a possible mechanism of action in humans as well.
Orexin receptors 1 and 2 are the two orexin receptors in the body. Animals that have defective orexin systems give off signs and symptoms that are similar to that of narcolepsy, and treatment of which Provigil is approved for by the FDA. Provigil appears to activate these orexin neurons in the animal models, and they are expected to promote and increase wakefulness.
Provigil Benefits and Dosages
In America, Provigil is approved by the FDA, but only for the treatment of a few disorders. These disorders are shift work sleep disorder, narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea. In other countries, it can also be approved for those that are hypersomnias (such as idiopathic hypersomnia).
The FDA typically recommends that the prescribed dosage for any of these disorders is one 200 mg dosage each day. There are some circumstances in which 100 to 400 mg each day split over one or two doses is suggested, but that is less common.
For any condition that isn’t shift work sleep disorder, Provigil is typically taken in one dose during the morning hours, or in two separate doses, with one in the morning and another at midday. It is not recommended to take Provigil after noon as it is a relatively long lasting drug with a total half-life of 15 hours. Taking Provigil later in the day can carry a risk of other sleep disturbances and make it difficult to fall asleep at night.
Since there is a risk for the development of hypersensitivity or skin reactions and other neuropsychiatric disorders, it has been recommended by the European Medicines Agency that new prescriptions for patients should only be used for the treatment of sleepiness that is associated with narcolepsy. There could possibly be serious side effects that could appear within the first twelve weeks of use. For this reason, the guidance does not require patients that are already receiving treatment from Provigil to stop taking the drug.
Provigil was also shown to be an effective treatment option for those that suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD for short. However, it was found by the FDA in 2006 that Provigil was deemed unfit for use by children for the purpose of ADHD. The reason is was rejected was because there were two cases of serious skin rashes, which may have been related to Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Erythema multiforme among the total of 933 patients that received the drugs. The doctor who made these diagnoses later recanted and stated that he had misdiagnosed the condition. However, the FDA has not yet reconsidered Provigil for treatment of ADHD. If you are interested in learning more about how Provigil works, it is recommended to read user reviews and experience logs to hear from others who have used it successfully.